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Thursday, May 19, 2011

Josephine Bracken: the rebel

Very little is written in Philippine history books about Josephine Bracken, the alleged widow of Dr. Jose Rizal, the national hero of the Filipinos. The few pages devoted to her usually pictures a very silent and reserved lady, a lady that briefly came and suddenly went, a lady lost into oblivion after the execution of Rizal. Not many know that Josephine joined the revolutionaries of Cavite where she cared for the sick and wounded and eventually took to the frontlines and killed a Spanish officer.

Friday, August 20, 2010

Aftermath of the Filipino-American war

In 1904, while Macario Sakay, Felizardo, Montalan and several other "ladrones" (the label used by the Americans on remnants of Filipino revolutionary forces) were still actively roaming the Philippine countrysides, and, once in while, conducting raids on isolated American garrisons, the conditions in the Philippines were described as one of desolation wrought by war.

Saturday, April 4, 2009

Agoncillo's failed diplomatic missions

In August 26, 1898, Felipe Agoncillo, the head of the Filipino junta in Hongkong, was instructed by Aguinaldo to proceed to Washington to gain support of president William H. McKinley for the new Philippine government.

Monday, December 29, 2008

Why the U.S. destroyed the Malolos republic

Every Filipino who went through high school would have learned that there once existed an earlier Filipino republican government, the first Filipino republic and the first in Asia, the so-called Malolos republic, with Emilio Aguinaldo as its president. But that awareness is oftentimes superficial and wanting in in-depth knowledge.

Wednesday, June 27, 2007

The day the Catholic Church almost died

The story of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente, otherwise known as the Philippine Independent Church, also known as the Aglipayan church, is intertwined with the war of independence against Spain and the subsequent war of resistance against the United States of America.

Tuesday, June 26, 2007

How the 1898 Treaty of Paris was railroaded

Is it not rather unusual that the United States had to pay $20 million to Spain in order to effect the annexation of the Philippine Islands?  If the spoils of war are the prerogative of the victor, as the saying goes, why pay? This article attempts to examine the motivations that led to the consummation of the Treaty of Paris in December 10, 1898.

Wednesday, March 7, 2007

McKinley's imperialist policy

America was a latecomer in the age of imperialism when powerful nations of Europe looked down on tropical nations as objects of colonization. During this period, peoples of tropical regions were classified as lower races to be controlled by the supposedly higher races, or those people inhabiting the temperate regions. America entered this age with its more influential Wall Street decision makers embracing this imperialist idea and dictating on the course of American foreign policy.

Why Filipinos are not a patriotic people

It is truly amazing that Filipinos are not a patriotic people. Yet, a decade and a hundred years ago this country teemed with great heroes.

Friday, January 26, 2007

Who really started the Filipino-American war?

Generations of Filipinos have been taught that the bloody Philippine-American war broke out on the night of February 4, 1899 because a Filipino lieutenant and three of his men allegedly refused to heed the challenge to halt at the approach of the American post at the San Juan bridge in the outskirts of Manila and were fired upon and killed by the American sentry, Private Grayson.

Sunday, December 31, 2006

Cebuanos at war with the Americans

Cebu was a hotbed of Filipino guerrilla activities during the war of resistance against the imposition of American sovereignty in the Philippine Islands at the close of the 19th century.

Tuesday, December 19, 2006

The Patriot and the Elite

An interesting exchange of letters between Benito Legarda, former cabinet member of President Aguinaldo, in whose honor one of the streets near Malacanang is named after, and Aguinaldo himself, which clearly differentiates the thinking of an elite and a patriot.

Thursday, December 7, 2006

An American defector to the Aguinaldo army

There were several defections of American soldiers to the Filipino side during the Philippine-American war. The most famous and very controversial was the defection of David Fagen from the all black 24th Infantry, USV.  Fagen was enlisted as lieutenant in General Alejandrino's command in Arayat,  promoted to captain and later served under General Urbano Lacuna's Nueva Ecija brigade. (Ganzhorn, 191)

To the American People, an Appeal

Among the important steps Aguinaldo took shortly after the declaration of Philippine independence in June 12, 1898 was the creation of the diplomatic corps to work for the recognition of the new Philippine republic by the foreign governments.

Balangiga - victory in guerrilla warfare

In September 29, 1901, the American garrison in the town of Balangiga, Samar was attacked by a force of Filipino guerrillas led by Eugenio S. Daza, an officer from the command of Filipino General Vicente Lukban,  assisted by the villagers. Of the 74 American soldiers from Company C of the 9th U.S. Infantry stationed at the garrison, 50 were killed or died later of wounds while 24 were able to escape, of which 20 were wounded.

Sunday, November 26, 2006

How the treasury of the Malolos Republic vanished

The Philippine Republic of 1898 had a functioning fiscal system that supported the raising and equipping of the army and navy and provided for expenditures of the various government functions like foreign affairs, interior, public instructions, communications and public works and agriculture, industry and commerce.

Sunday, November 19, 2006

Observations of an American POW

Aguinaldo was fighting a war, at the same time, he was running a government. These two facets of Philippine life in the 1900's was observed closely by an American prisoner of war named Albert Sonrichsen.