Wednesday, March 7, 2007

Why Filipinos are not a patriotic people

(There is an update version: "The Filipino Tragedy")

It is truly amazing that Filipinos are not patriotic people. Yet, a decade and a hundred years ago this country teemed with great heroes.

Men like Sancho Valenzuela, Flaviano Yenko, Ananias Diokno, Maximo Abad, Luciano San Miguel, Eugenio Daza, Julian Santos, Faustino Guillermo, Ambrosio Flores, Simeon Ola, Arcadio Maxilon, Martin Delgado, Urbano Lacuna, Juan Cailles, Licerio Geronimo, Sixto Lopez, just to name a few of the unheralded. But today ineptitude, helplessness, indifference and disregard for law and order prevail. Seekers of favor, privilege, and position outnumber those who are willing to make sacrifices for the country. And not one among contemporary public officials shows any real interest in leading the people out of poverty, ignorance, and apathy. The puzzle becomes even more pronounced whenever the question is asked why the likes of Aguinaldo, Rizal, Bonifacio, Jacinto, Del Pilar, Luna, Lopez Jaena, Mariano Ponce are nowhere to be found. Did something unusual happen then that we are not told today?

"Ang isang lahi na walang marangal na gunita hinggil sa sarili ay isang lahing
madalîng alipinin at patuloy na may isip-alipin kahit bigyan ng kalayaan." - Virgilio Almario.
( Photo source: University of Michigan Digital Library)

Revisiting the Aguinaldo era
A diligent student of Philippine history could use the internet to get to the facts that would lead to the solution of the puzzle much faster. With some luck, he might find himself in a gold mine of information, The student would find books, pamphlets, and documents containing unfamiliar accounts and events, facts that an average Filipino student could not have encountered in his school days or professional career. Indeed, so much had been deliberately missed out in Philippine school textbooks concerning the events that took place after the United States succeeded Spain as the colonial master of these islands at the turn of the twentieth century.

It will take a little while to gather the data and digest the facts, but eventually, a clear scenario will form in one’s mind like several frames as in a graphical presentation. First to show would be the frame of Bonifacio, then Aguinaldo, then the battle of Manila Bay, then the Filipino army and navy, then the siege of Spanish garrisons throughout Luzon, Visayas, and parts of Mindanao, then the victorious Filipino flag flying in towns and cities, then the first Filipino republic, then the armed intervention by the Americans, then the Filipino war of resistance, then the defoliation, reconcentrado and water cure, then the surrender of Filipino guerrilla fighters, then the American colonial government, then the public school system and the final frame, the new Filipino.

The student would realize no sooner that the reason why today's generation of Filipinos are not patriotic is that they are descendants of the new Filipino or those that William Howard Taft condescendingly called the little brown brothers (Taft, 125). These were the generation of Filipinos who had undergone a process of re-education, which the nationalist historian, Constantino, called the remaking of the Filipino. The parents were the patriotic Filipinos who fought side by side with Aguinaldo, but the offspring were taught to become subservient Filipinos of the American colonial era.

But what would likely escape notice by the unwary student is that the re-education process was not accidental, or a result of teaching English or other American-oriented subjects. As will be proved later, the re-education process was deliberate. It was carefully designed to erase from the memory of the Filipinos a very sad chapter in their country's history. The public school system was utilized to implement a systematic process of indoctrination in order that Filipinos will have no recollection of the horrors they went through in their heroic resistance to American occupation. That the process was successful can be gleaned from its product, the new Filipino whose descendants today are wrestling with lost national identity, unfamiliar with the blood and tears that their forefathers shed in a bitter struggle to establish a government of their own, free and independent.

McKinley's clever ploy
The story of the transformation of the Filipino from the patriotic to the subservient came about with the rise of America as a world power in the late 19th century. U.S. President William McKinley wanted to take the Philippine Islands as an American colony following the British model. However, a territorial expansion that ignored the rights of the inhabitants to American citizenship violated the constitution of the United States and the libertarian tradition of the American people. Nevertheless, President McKinley was obsessed and completely consumed by his imperialistic design.

He ignored the favorable opinion of Admiral Dewey and the other American generals about the capability of Filipinos for self-government and their superiority over the Cubans who the United States freed after the Spaniards were driven out of Cuba. He also refused to acknowledge the accomplishment of the Filipinos in defeating the Spaniards and establishing a de facto government that held ninety-three percent of the country and administered to ninety-four percent of the population. The so-called Philippine republic, according to Washington officials, was not recognized as a belligerent by the powers, e.g., England, United States, Germany, Japan or Russia, and therefore, for practical purposes, did not exist. But whenever the American generals needed anything from Aguinaldo - oxen, horses, wagons, timber, encampments, supplies or information, he was addressed as Commanding General of the Philippine Forces.

Rather than sympathize with a struggling people, the McKinley administration concocted a very clever ploy. The American public was made to believe that the Filipinos were savages, uncivilized, and unfit for self-government. The Filipinos were likened to the American Indians who lived among several tribes scattered all across the Philippine archipelago. McKinley presented himself as the knight in shining armor that Divine Providence had anointed to lead the Filipinos out into the bright sunlight of western civilization. (Storey and Lichauco, 177). But what the American public was not made privy to was the prospects of enormous profits from hemp, sugar, timber, India rubber, gold, silver and other precious metals, coaling stations, and control of commerce in the east that made the Wall Street schemers very excited about. Neither was the American public told that the Filipinos fought the Spaniards to gain their independence and will fight the Americans to defend that independence. And so McKinley's obsession to colonize the Philippines proceeded with the ayes of the members of the United States Congress and applause of the American people.

War of extermination and devastation
What Aguinaldo thought was an alliance with the Americans against Spain was eventually exposed to him as a masquerade to the real motives of the Americans. Soon after Aguinaldo had defeated the Spaniards and a large of contingent of American troops had arrived in Manila, war was commenced by the U.S. military in February 4, 1899, which influenced a wavering U.S. Congress to ratify the Treaty of Paris, the treaty between Spain and the United States which ceded the Philippines to the latter, by a majority of only one vote, i.e., 57 ayes to 27 nayes. McKinley gave the Filipinos only one choice - submit to American authority or be killed. The Filipinos chose to fight a vastly superior army rather than submit to a new master. For almost a year, the Filipino army faced the superior American forces in open-field or conventional warfare only to be clobbered in each engagement. Filipino initiatives for a truce were rebuffed by the Americans with a demand for an unconditional surrender of the entire Filipino army before any talks are opened. But the Filipinos refused the terms of an unconditional surrender without a clear commitment that a government under an American protectorate will be respected. And so the fighting continued.

Eventually, the succession of defeats in various battlefields forced Aguinaldo to change strategy. He issued an order to disband the 30,000 strong Filipino army in November 1899 and constitute the officers and soldiers into guerrilla units in their home provinces. The change in strategy surprised the Americans who began to suffer heavier casualties from sneak attacks and ambuscades by Filipino guerrillas. A Washington paper printed this report, viz:
”Dispatches from Manila stating that more troops are needed and that the American army is suffering embarrassment and unnecessary losses on account of the lack of a sufficient force to occupy the territory from which the insurgents are driven, attract much attention here. “ (Swift, 257)
And from an American officer:
”Much of the news sent home by correspondents is so shamefully false that it does our cause great injury among the foreign interests here. Gen. Otis keeps sending reports that the insurrection will soon be suppressed. Nobody in the field believes such stuff. The insurgents can fight a guerilla warfare with 10,000 men, such as will keep 100,000 American troops busy for five years. In the rainy season all campaigning on a large scale must stop. Meantime the insurgents can recuperate, replenish their supplies of ammunition, go on cultivating their fields in the interior and suffer comparatively little hardship. In all the 300 years of Spanish occupation, war raged continuously in some parts of the group. The interior and larger part of Luzon never has been conquered. The volunteers have done the heavy fighting so far, and they fight all around the regulars, too. Have that Philippine strategist at Washington choked off. His articles are ludicrous. In an issue of the papers received last mail he speaks of no fighting having occurred south of the Pasig River. That is exactly where all the heaviest fighting occurred prior to the movement against Malolos. The American losses south of the Pasig River foot up over 500. “ (Swift, 261)
So the bloody conflict, the first modern guerrilla warfare in Asia, dragged on for three more years. The tenacity of the Filipinos was reflected in a statement of Teodoro Sandico, a member of the Aguinaldo cabinet, who issued a proclamation on May 16, 1899, which said in part:
“Before accepting autonomy (which we shall do only as a last resort) I think it is our duty to exhaust all our resources for war, organize all our forces, and not consider ourselves conquered until the last cartridge has been fired.” (Philippine Information Society[v1n7], 21)
McKinley did not want a prolonged war because he was facing a reelection. Neither was he willing to let the American public know exactly what was happening in the Philippine islands. McKinley refused to accept General Arthur MacArthur's report that the whole Filipino nation was loyal to Aguinaldo and that practically every town served as a base of Filipino guerrilla operation with full moral and material support from the townspeople. McKinley was following a very clear objective – put the Philippines on the map of the United States. Therefore, he had to misrepresent to the American people that the war was being waged only by what he called the Tagalog tribe and that the several other tribes were willing to accept American authority. He had to keep the American public hold on to the misconception that the Filipinos were savages and unfit to govern themselves and justify his intrusion into their purely domestic affairs.

Accordingly, the American generals were put under severe pressure to end the war soonest because the American public might soon ask why a small savage tribe is able to resist the most powerful army in the world with 70,000 soldiers manning 500 stations by June 1900 (Storey and Lichauco, 160). And it was at this point that all rules of civilized warfare were thrown aside and strict press censorship was enforced.

McKinley’s predicament and the unusually stiff resistance of the Filipino guerrillas drove the American command to adopt a counter strategy. The new strategy involved the “cutting off of the income and food of insurgents, and by crowding them so persistently with operations as to wear them out" (Ramsey, 7). The civilian population became the primary target of this new strategy who was deliberately made to suffer by such means as reconcentration, defoliation, and devastation in order to force the populace to deny any further support to the guerrillas and make them long for peace.

In his circular order no.22, U.S. Brigadier General Franklin Bell, in implementing his pacification campaign in Batangas province, said:
"To combat such a population, it is necessary to make the state of war as insupportable as possible, and there is no more efficacious way of accomplishing this than by keeping the minds of the people in such a state of anxiety and apprehension that living under conditions will soon become unbearable. Little should be said. The less said the better. Let acts, not words, convey the intention." (Storey and Lichauco 120).
Accordingly, the war turned into a war of extermination and devastation characterized by a very lopsided ratio ratio of combat prisoners vis-a-vis deaths (historical data is about 4 prisoners to 1 dead), accompanied by torture, indefinite incarcerations, indiscriminate killings, defoliation and devastation of towns and farms, and fueled mainly by racist contempt - a colored race had no right to stand up before a supposedly superior white race - accentuated by retaliation from the Filipino side.

A prominent American anti-imperialist, George Seawall Boutwell, observed that one pretext for the war has been the assertion that the Filipinos were uncivilized, and, therefore, that they were not entitled to consideration. (Willis, 250). The Filipinos were called niggers, gugus, khakias and ladrones. As the war dragged on American loathing of Filipinos amplified to higher levels. One observer who described the conflict as a war of extermination said:
“ ...the slaughter of women and children was frightful, the Americans burning and devastating all before them, conducting a war of extermination and shooting every Filipino.” (Valentine, 18).
Torture was resorted to all throughout the islands. John Morgan Gates said that by the middle of 1900, Americans and Macabebes resorted to the water cure and other forms of terror. They seized people and forcibly filled their stomachs with water until they revealed the hiding place of guerrillas, supplies, or arms. (Gates, 175). According to Blount, the water cure was practically the only way the Americans could get a Filipino betray his own countrymen. (Blount, 204).There was no room for neutrals. Every inhabitant should either be an active friend or be classed as an enemy. (Ramsey, 49)

Reconcentration was extensively used. Civilians were herded into the designated security zone and any person, animal, food, or anything useful to the guerrillas, that were found outside the security zone were either killed or destroyed. U.S. General J.W. Bell, in his report of December 6, 1901, to Washington discloses the methods he will employ to rid Batangas of rebels, viz:
"I am now assemblying in the neighborhood of 2,500 men who will be used in columns of fifty men each. I take so large a command for the purpose of thoroughly searching each ravine, valley and mountain peak for insurgents and for food, expecting to destroy everything I find outside the towns. All able-bodied men will be killed or captured... These people need a thrashing to teach them some good common sense, and they should have it for the good of all concerned." (Storey and Lichauco, 120)
Moorefield Storey quotes a Republican Congressman who visited the islands in 1902 expressed these observations:
"You never hear of any disturbance in Northern Luzon; and the secret of its pacification is, in my opinion, the secret of the pacification of the archipelago. They never rebel in Northern Luzon because there isn't anybody there to rebel. The country was marched over and cleaned in a most resolute manner. The good Lord in heaven only knows the number of Filipinos that were put under ground. Our soldiers took no prisoners, they kept no records; they simply swept the country, and wherever or whenever they could get hold of a Filipino they killed him. The women and children were spared, and may now be noticed in disproportionate numbers in that part of the islands." (Storey and Lichauco, 121-122)
The indiscriminate target of American military campaign was best described by John Rich McDill when he said:
"During our military operations in the field we saw a most beautiful country, but week after week we passed through abandoned and silent towns, villages, and fields, ... The women and children, the old and feeble, and the sick, were hiding unsheltered in the woods and mountains. We, a perfectly armed and equipped army of the most powerful republic in the world, were pursuing and killing sad-eyed little brown men and boys, who were scantily clothed, poorly nourished, and almost unarmed..." (McDill, 2).
Despite the strict censorship employed by the U.S. military on reports by U.S. national newspaper correspondents, numerous documented accounts of the use of harsh methods found their way into local newspapers from letters of American soldiers to their families in the United States. This one in San Francisco Call from a corporal of the California regiment:
"We sleep all day here, as we do duty all night walking the streets. We make every one get into his house by 7 P. M., and we only tell a man once. If he refuses we shoot him. We killed over 300 men the first night. They tried to set the town on fire. If they fire a shot from a house, we burn the house down, and every house near it, and shoot the natives, so they are pretty quiet in town now." (Swift, 249)
And this, from Capt. Elliot of the Kansas regiment as told by the Chattanooga Times:
"Talk about war being hell, this war beats the hottest estimate ever made of that locality. Caloocan was supposed to contain 17,000 inhabitants. The Twentieth Kansas swept through it, and now Caloocan contains not one living native. Of the buildings, the battered walls of the great church and the dismal prison alone remain. The village of Maypaja, where our first fight occurred on the night of the 4th, had 5,000 people in it at that day - now not one stone remains upon top of another." (Swift, 249)
And this letter from A. A. Barnes, Battery G, 3d U. S. Artillery, published first in Greensburg, Indiana., Standard:
"Last night one of our boys was found shot and his stomach cut open. Immediately orders were received from Gen. Wheaton to burn the town and kill every native in sight; which was done to a finish. About 1,000 men, women, and children were reported killed. I am probably growing hard-hearted, for I am in my glory when I can sight my gun on some dark skin and pull the trigger.... Tell all my inquiring friends that I am doing everything I can for Old Glory.... (!!! ). (Swift, 253)
Some of these letters led to investigations by the U.S. Congress. A transcript of one such investigation contained the testimony of two American soldiers, William Lewis Smith and Charles Riley (Riley and Smith), describing in detail the administration of water cure to the presidente (mayor) of Igbarras, Iloilo and three of the town’s policemen, including the subsequent burning of the whole town.

The new American strategy worked. By sowing fear, inflicting pain, causing death, or destroying property, the Americans succeeded in forcibly isolating the guerrillas from the civilian population, the main support base, and this was the principal factor that caused the weakening of the resistance and bringing it to an end. General Miguel Malvar, the last of the great Filipino generals to surrender, in explaining why he and three thousand of his men gave up in April 1902, wrote that he could no longer bear the sufferings of the people.

The estimate of the death toll in Luzon attributed to the war was one-sixth of the population. (Storey, 121). The population of the Philippine Islands in 1900 was somewhere between eight to nine million. An American war protester made this comment:
"There is no doubt that we have caused the destruction of more lives in the last three years than the Spanish did in any century of their misrule. " (Ministers, 13).
Blot on an immaculate linen
Definitely, against the backdrop of the great American heritage, this McKinley misadventure in the Philippines was destined to become an ugly episode in the glorious pages of American history. It would be a contradiction to the long-held constitutional and democratic principles of liberty that the American people hold dear - that men are created equal and have inherent rights to freedom and democracy. Certainly, American authorities would not allow the true story of Philippine conquest blemish American honor. Therefore, it would be logical to assume that steps were taken to muddle this section of Filipino history, erase it from the memory of the Filipinos, make them forget the horrors they went through, and hide it from the prying eyes of the future generation.

True enough, steps were taken to make Filipinos forget!

Francis Burton Harrison, the first Democrat-appointed Governor General of the Philippine Islands, whose administration was marked by liberality and sympathy to the Filipino cause for independence, described the steps taken:
"The exhibition of the Filipino flag, under which they had fought their war against us, was made by statute a criminal offense. Patriotism was never encouraged in the schools, nor ideas which tended to arouse their own national consciousness. Everything which might help to make the pupils understand their own race or think about the future of the country was carefully censored and eliminated. Nevertheless, the good sound stock of American ideas which they received instructed them inevitably in our own democratic ideals, and in our pride in own liberties." (Harrison, 45).
The irreconcilable former General of the Filipino army, Artemio Vibora Ricarte, who took to his grave his refusal to take the oath of allegiance to the United States, preferring solitary confinement, then a self-exile in Yokohama, Japan, saw beyond the facade of American altruism an insidious design when he said:
"The truth is America taught our young people the things that commemorate the lives of Lincoln and Washington in order that we will forget in our hearts the exemplary deeds of our nation's great heroes. The Americans believe that once we are able to speak good English is proof enough that we have learned, yet in our minds is being instilled a wrong thinking, the superiority of the white race." (author's translation of Tagalog text found in Ricarte[Kabataan], 12).
Many political and military leaders of the defunct Aguinaldo government accepted a generous offer of the high position in the American colonial government. Those who did not and refused to take the oath of allegiance to the United States were exiled to the Marianas.

War relics and voluminous captured Filipino government records and documents officially labeled as Philippine Insurgents Records (PIR) were shipped to the United States. American teachers came to inaugurate an American-sponsored public school system. English supplanted Spanish, a language change that was not done by the Americans in Puerto Rico or Cuba, and with it went the loss of Hispanic literary and intellectual heritage, making the succeeding generation of Filipinos fertile grounds for the propagation of the good sound stock of American ideas.

Filipino schoolchildren were taught to revere America and belittle the land of their birth. The first line of a beautiful Tagalog love song, for instance, was translated to English with emphasis on the state of being borne poor, instead of placing the focus on the demigod character of the hero, who was born on top of a mountain with the clouds as his cradle; he played with thunder and was caressed by lightning. In another case, the popular Tagalog folk song, the bahay-kubo, was translated into English as “My nipa hut is very small”, again, the emphasis on smallness. And yet this popular folk song is supposed to depict a prosperous small rural farm where all kinds of vegetables abound.

Another important step that American authorities did was discredit Aguinaldo and designate Rizal as the hero of the Filipinos. Carl Crow, says:
"Among other things the Filipino people lacked to make them a nation was a hero - a safe hero, the only safe ones, of course, being dead. Aguinaldo held the highest place in the eyes of his countrymen, as the leader of the recent insurrection, but he was ... one who might be of considerable danger to the American administration. It was expedient to establish a hero whose fame would overshadow that of Aguinaldo, and thereby lessen that leader’s ability to make future trouble. ... Governor Taft, ... at once fixed on Jose Rizal…" (Crow, 53).
The designation of Jose Rizal as the national hero was calculated not only to lessen Aguinaldo's ability to make future trouble. It had the effect also, and this is the more important, of making the future generation of Filipinos identify the Spaniards as villains and the Americans as saviors. On the other hand, if Aguinaldo were the national hero, the future celebration of the hero's day would not only highlight the victory over the Spaniards by the Filipinos and the government they established, but also the unjust war of conquest waged by President McKinley on the Filipinos to deprive them of their freedom. The choice of Rizal over Aguinaldo saved the Americans from being remembered as the butcher of the Filipinos, the pillager of their land, and the destroyer of their republic.

The new Filipino
From the day the American colonial administration was inaugurated in 1901, the new Filipino emerged, known today as the little brown Americans. These are Filipinos by appearance, but Americans in thought, word, and deed. True to Harrison's specifications, the new Filipino spoke English very fluently, knew much about American ideals, history, arts, literature, and music by heart, but have a very vague notion of their ancestors' struggle for freedom, or their sacred dreams and aspirations that drove them to arms. They would usually turn into very competent professionals but would lack one very important trait – patriotism, thanks to the methodical classroom strategy that Harrison described.

While the legislature, the judiciary, and executive cabinet positions were Filipinized during the later part of American colonial government the Department of Education was kept under American control. The process of making Filipinos forget did not stop after the Americans let go of the Philippines in 1946. A Grade IV pupil in the year 1951 was still being taught to sing Star spangled banner, God bless America, etc. By the time the same child stepped into High School, he would be made to study American history on the First Year and in later years memorize the address of Lincoln at Gettysburg and the poem, The Song of Hiawatha. In other words, for more than five decades the Filipino was subjected to something that was considered in the cold war as diabolical - brainwashing.

In sum, the American conquest of the Philippines was not just a case of subjugating an unwilling people. It was also a case of making the same people forget that they were subjugated.

For as long as schoolchildren are taught Jack and Jill, rather than Leron Leron Sinta, and are precluded from learning or even hearing the tune of Pamulenawen or Sarumbanggi, the Filipino is doomed to national perdition. In other words, the malaise that afflicts the Filipino character will remain unrecognized and no serious steps will be taken to correct it. Unless the Filipino national character changes the heavy burden of the corrupted sense of identity will blur the vision of the future and the Filipino will be confused which path leads to national liberation. The salvation of the Filipino will not come from foreign aid, foreign investment, preferential treatment, free trade, or from remittances of OFWs. Rather, it would depend primarily on the rejuvenation of the Filipino mind, the rekindling the spirit of 1898 - the love of country and the aspiration to be free and independent. The best recourse of the Filipino would be to reclaim the patriotic character of the heroes held hostage by the muddled past and to acknowledge that the Filipino race could accomplish great things just as Aguinaldo did. It will give the Filipino today the confidence, strength, and courage to remedy the present and approach the future.

But a nation can only succeed if the people make sacrifices. And without patriotism, there can be no sacrifice.

1. Blount, James H.: "The American Occupation of the Philippines, 1898-1912", New York, London, G.P. Putnam's Son, 1912, Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library 2005,

2. Crow, Carl: "America and the Philippines", New York, Double, Page and Company,1914, Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library 2005,

3. Gates, John Morgan: "Schoolbooks and Krags; the United States army in the Philippines, 1898-1902", Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press, 1973, Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library 2005,

4. Harrison, Francis Burton: "The Cornerstone of Philippine Independence", New York, The Century Co., 1922, Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library 2005,

5. McDill, John Rich: "Injustice of American opposition to Philippine independence",1900-?, Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library 2005,

6. Ministers' meeting of protest against atrocities in the Philippines: "Address of Rev. E. Winchester Donald, Rev. B.F. Trueblood [and others]", Tremont Temple, Boston, May 22, 1902, Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library 2005,

7. Philippine Information Society,"The Luzon Campaign",Vol. 1, No. 7, Boston, 1901, Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library 2005,

8. Ramsey III, Robert D.: "A Masterpiece of Counterguerrilla Warfare: BG J. Franklin Bell in the Philippines, 1901–1902", Combat Studies Institute Press, US Army Combined Arms Center, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 2007

9. Ricarte, Artemio: "Sa Mga Kabataang Pilipino", Japan, s.n. 1920, Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library 2005,

10. Riley, Charles S. and Smith, William Lewis:  "Testimony of Charles S. Riley [and William Lewis Smith]", United States Congress, 1902, Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library 2005,

11. Storey, Moorfield: "Secretary Root's record. 'Marked severities' in Philippine warfare. An analysis of the law and facts bearing on the action and utterances of President Roosevelt and Secretary Root",Codman, Julian, joint author, Boston: G.H. Ellis co., printers, 1902, Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library 2005,

12. Storey , Moorefield and Lichauco,  Marcial P.:  "The Conquest of the Philippines by the United States", New York and London, G.Putnam's Sons, 1926, Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library 2005,

13. Swift, Morrison I.: "Imperialism and liberty", Los Angeles: The Ronbroke press, 1899, Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library 2005,

14. Taft, Helen Heron: "Recollection of Full Years by Mrs. William Howard Taft", New York, Dodd, Mead, 1914, Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library 2005,

15. Valentine, John Joseph: "Imperial Democracy: Dutch colonizers in Malaysia; annexation of the Philippines", San Francisco, Cal., 1899, Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library 2005,

16. Willis, Henry Parker: "Our Philippine Problem; A study of American colonial policy", New York, H. Holt and Company, 1905, Ann Arbor, Michigan:University of Michigan Library 2005,


  1. "The day on which you would see me in the clutches of the friars, do not waste time making petitions or uttering complaints or lamentations — it is useless. Try to put another in my place who may avenge me and make them pay dearly for my misfortune! If I would see a son of mine in the mouth of a shark, I would not try to pull him out — for it is useless and all I would achieve is to destroy him — I would kill the shark if possible, and if not, I would waylay him!"

    -Dr. Jose Rizal to Mariano Ponce
    Paris, 18th April 1889


    "When the people is gagged; when its dignity, honor, and all its liberties are trampled; when it no longer has any legal recourse against the tyranny of its oppressors; when its complaints, petitions, and groans are not attended to; when it is not permitted even to weep; when even the last hope is wrested from its heart; then..! then..! then..! it has left no other remedy but to take down with delirious hand from the infernal altars the BLOODY and SUICIDAL DAGGER of REVOLUTION!!!"

    Dr. Jose Rizal,
    To Our Dear Mother Country, Spain, 10 October 1889


    “I am readying myself for death. I am making arrangements for what I will leave behind and am preparing myself for any eventuality; Laong Laan is my real name. That is why I wish to finish the second volume of Noli at any cost and if it is possible, I do not wish to leave what I have begun without anyone to continue it…

    May our compatriots there obey the voice of their heart and devote the precious time of their youth to something great, which is worthy of them.

    We do not have the good luck of other young men who can dispose of their time and their future.

    We have upon as A DUTY; TO REDEEM OUR MOTHER FROM HER CAPTIVITY; our mother is pawned; WE MUST REDEEM HER before we amuse ourselves.”

    -Dr. Jose Rizal to M. H. del Pilar
    Brussels, 11 June 1890


  2. The Philippines suck! It is a corrupt country filled with morons. The government are equally stupid. The United States offered the country a place within it's unity as a whole. Instead the Morons yes that's the Philippines opted to have keep their 3rd world country identity intact. It is so hilarious how morons lead the morons in that country. What a shame. In order for a filipino to get a decent job they would have to travel to the middle east to become servants or janitors. They do not have ambitions except to either be a stupid caregiver, a servant for some prince in the middle east or a burger king employee. How sad. hopefully one day they will disappear from the face of the earth and have a worthy race to manage the country because these degerates do not deserve to run it.

    1. Ulol, isang araw at malapit na iyon. Ang inyong pang aapi ay babalik sa inyo itoy nagsimula na. Panonoorin namin masunog ang inyong mga syudad, mga bahay at bukirin. Naway matikman nyo ang sinapit ngbaming mga ninuno

    2. Morons & degerates? Your comment is typical of a stupid pompous ass, who's a self-righteous know it all and idiotic better than the other racist. No wonder the american pathetic society is falling apart, crumbling like cheap cookies and it's international policies are shitty as ever. And who said we don't have dreams? We have, but it's the americans who tell us that we are only their little monkey joes (racist as ever). The meddling of america in our politics has forced Filipinos into poverty, thus limiting us of our true full potential. But who ever you are punk anonymous, soon you will see, give it 2 decades, and we will shine like no other country and race. And then your pathetic stars and stripes will be burned down to ashes and your greatness will soon be gone.

  3. Well now - comments by Anonymous certainly deserve being flamed down.
    It would be no surprise at all to learn that the seductive influence of capitalism has a very profound effect on the national psyche of the Philippines.
    I have been aware for some time of the sad history thrust upon the Philippines - believe me when I tell you it wrenches my heart.
    And yet there are still those - concealed behind the mask of affluence - like leaches - sucking the country dry - and pretending moral superiority. Tragically, they are believed - such is the conditioning of the people.
    For too long they have been passive to interests other than their own.
    For such a beautiful country and people it is a great tragedy indeed.
    Thanks for this article.

  4. Which is most appropraite?

    "Why Filipinos are not a patriotic people?"


    "Why people from Luzon are not patriotic people?"

    Much of what is written in Philippine history are all based on events that happened in Luzon. Even personalities are those coming from Luzon like Rizal.

  5. Interesting discussion, but a bit of perspective, please. Patriotism is an offshoot of nationalism, a worldwide phenomenon in the 19th century. "Nations" as old as Italy were not even in existence as such, and we were riding on the same wave. Some countries also happened to be more threatened by war than others (against Napoleon, for one - the "patriotic duty" concept). In other places, the idea led to chauvinism and racism (in a "national" idea based on ethnicity, I suppose it has to be a stage). Hence, I can't help questioning everything I was taught in high school and college, including patriotism.

    I do have to agree that corruption is a pending assignment. Have you seen the Transparency International Corruption Map?

    Rizal continues to be relevant: "There are no tyrants where there are no slaves".

  6. Anonymous said: "The United States offered the country a place within it's unity as a whole. Instead the Morons yes that's the Philippines opted to have keep their 3rd world country identity intact." No, the U.S. applied the traditional English colonial model. See item on this site: "McKinley's imperialist policy"

  7. an incomplete recipe for a new Filipino

    1/2 cup idealism
    2 tbsp. hospitality
    5 cups patriotism

  8. please do read this site: :D

  9. For all of You who's keeping that look of downess to the philippines, Guy's You should be thankful that Your lucky to not be a filipino. I may not be as good as You in english and as You noticed; and will be noticing that there's a lot of gramatical errors. There is no requirements on being a nation, if we are unlucky on being filipino's then help us! even if we live in diferent countries seperated by seas You should always remember that we are all in one world! even if how great and rich or famous your country is You should not be proud! a small dirt on a plate is enough to ruin a restorant! what i mean is we all live in one place, the earth so why not instead of underestemating the capacity of a country to rise, why not suport and help that certain country in building its little dreams? beautifying something is not only beautifying a piece of it, it is about make the whole of it perfect! the piece i mean is the philippines, no matter how you beautify your own country iy wouldn't still count for we are all in one place! hope that you understand, I LOVE MY COUNTRY SO MUCH, no I MEAN WE FILIPINO'S DO LOVES OUR COUNTRY SO MUCH! that is why we keep on struggling to other countries and make our selves slaves!

  10. we filipinos we are survivor and known as good workers around the world,why u hate filipinos that much? history is part of our past we have to focuse as an individual filipinos by heart how to make changes and how to help or inspire the young generation, because i believe if we help young filipinos tell them our great history , motivate them by the bravery of our heroes who sacrifice their lives for freedom like bonifacio, aguinaldo, rizal andt etc., inspire them to believe in their dreams, and learn from our history. Filipinos are smart people but one of our biggest problem is crabmentality......

  11. I think it's a great article, but maybe the scope of history should be widened. The Americans may have reeducated and formed us into the white-wannabes we are today, but the Spanish did have a bit of an impact on our colonial mentality.

  12. To the first Anonymous:

    Shut the hell up! It's obvious that you're not American, there might even be a possibility that you're Filipino, but please, stop whining about something you don't know anything about.

    It's people like you who keep the Philippines from rising from poverty. Selfish people who think of themselves before the country.

    So what if it sucks. Go do something about it. Or better yet, go learn some English so you can be a part of the America you love so much. I'm not anti-American but the way you commented on a article written to motivate nationalism is pissing me off.

    And what the hell is so wrong with being a janitor or caregiver? Every time you walk into a building, your feet are touching the floor someone else cleaned. Whenever you're too busy to take care of a loved one, a caregiver does it for you. That and the fact that Filipinos are the most preferred workforce in the world should prove that we're a worthy race.

    And even if we aren't, it doesn't matter because you are no better. So please, spare me the pain of trying to read your awful English and stop posting comments like that. It's disgusting.

    Sana nag-Tagalog ka na lang. Sana sineryoso pa yung opinyon mo.

  13. I am glad that I have come across this site, I feel that or I thought that I was patriotic to my mother land even though I was raised in the U.S. I recently been searching for the history of our HEROES and how they defended the rights of the people. I feel really bad on how we got oppressed by countries that over time we now served them again and again. Philippines will only change if the people will accept responsibility and act accordingly from richest of the rich and poorest of the poor. The government is corrupt because the people of the Philippines are letting it to be corrupt. One can make a difference but others need to follow. We all love and proud to be Filipinos/Pilipinos even the one that we're born outside the Philippines. Maybe not all but most of them are proud. The others are just lost because they don't know their roots. The author is right not to forget our history specially the real history that nobody cares or intend to open to the public. This opened my eyes and I will definitely tell my kids about our Philippine history so maybe they could find or take back their identity as a FILIPINO. THE REAL FILIPINO. IT'S NEVER TO LATE!

  14. I don't see a point in this blog. I'm only a kid and I myself as a Filipino, I find these comments offensive. Are you guys RACIST or something? OPEN YOUR EYES! We are all created equal! Seriously, this made me feel stepped on. And what the hell? The Philippines suck?? That's just immoral okay?? So very childish of you guys, as a kid, I find this very very immature! Not just being immature but, this is a put-down to us Filipinos, I never knew someone could say horrible things like this! I don't understand how other people could say things like this. I could just kneel down right now and pray to the Lord that you people will realize what you have done wrong.

  15. thanks for the great post. i am just relieved that you've pointed out one of the culprits to our situation and i agree with the Anonymous (posted at March 30, 2009 7:58 AM) that it's never too late.

    the title (at first, i thought that it was a flamer but i'm just happy that i'm wrong) made me read the post.

    here's a quote from National Artist Virgilio Almario that i'd like to share:

    "Ang isang lahi na walang marangal na gunita hinggil sa sarili ay isang lahing madalîng alipinin at patuloy na may isip-alipin kahit bigyan ng kalayaan."

    more power to you!

  16. If I were you, I would rather start the article with "It is truly DISHEARTENING that Filipinos are not a patriotic" because I can feel that our people do not have sense of History!

    I am a small businessman with History as my hobby. What you have written is an eye-opener for me. I have bookmarked it as reference for my research. More Power!

  17. I have long known our people to be deprived of a clear national identity and without sense of History. And after reading your article, I gained an insight on how Filipinos have lost themselves in the process of benevolent intoxication of their patriotic soul. But sad to say I don't see any hope of national identity revival when I observe young people today in poverty-stricken squatter areas dancing zestfully with American rock tunes despite their obvious sign of malnutrition.

  18. To the showroom manager: Thank you for sharing your quote from national artist Virgilio Almario. I adopted it as the catchphrase.

  19. I have emailed your article to about hundred of my friends whom I suppose to be belonging to the diminishing patriotic few! We have a long vacation now that I believe they will surely have time to read it in detail. This will serve also as my moral support for you! If you don't mind, please give me your email ad for future contact!

  20. To Erichan: here's my email ad: Thank you for your support.

  21. as an english teacher i think im brainwashed myself! but now im fully aware.. long before i have even come to teach english, nationalism came to me but i did not fully understand how come i only felt it now, not when i was still a child. but now it is clear to me. if we were tricked through education, then i believe education itself is the answer to restoring nationalism. schools should focus on philippine history and nationalism, as to what our anscestors died for. so that their contributions, their lives would never be but to waste or worse, FORGOTTEN.
    we may have western clothing, or listen to western music or even adopt the western way of living, BUT WE CANNOT FORGET WHO WE ARE OR WHERE WE CAME FROM.
    let our children know, let us as adults remember. PILIPINO TAYO. i believe if we really care about patriotism or nationalism, we should contribute to nationalism through our skill. i would do my best to teach our history and nationalism in our classes. you can do the same in your proffession. lets focus on spreading nationalism first then i believe everthing else will fall into place. the government is just a part of our decline, a small part. but through education, at least i would know we may have a glimpse of a brighter future with a next generation of nationalistic filipinos.

  22. It is a sad thing that most Filipinos aren't that patriotic these days. Heck, I even started to think like another race. But that was only because we have forgotten our ancestors' struggle.

    If America hadn't colonized us, we would end up being a German colony (Germany nearly took over our country), and would also end up as a Japanese colony (the Treaty of Versailles would still be in effect since Germany would lose the Philippines as a reparation requirement), so either way, we're screwed over by either America, Germany, or Japan. (Unless, by a miracle, Germany would allow Austria-Hungary to use the Philippines as a penal colony for its subject races)

    As of today, our nationalism is pointed inwards as a result of family loyalty and the interests of America being the number one priority. However, let us not forget that the Spaniards also injected to us another bitter medicine in the forms of family loyalty that resulted in the corruption that happens today.

    So, as Filipinos, we should take this opportunity to take back what's rightfully ours and turn our nation from a 'nation of servants' as a certain Hong Kong jackass of a journalist would say, to a 'nation of patriots and warriors' in the same line as the nationalists that dominated the rest of South East Asia, and to a lesser extent, the Balkans.

    rot in hell you sucker!

    Even BEFORE the colonizers came, the Philippines has already established its own "mini" government and social groups in the form of Barangays.

    Kung Pilipino ka at hindi mo alam to, magduda ka na dude!? Baka HINDI ka tao.

    Anyway, I'm currently going through a subject called PI 100 (philippine institution) and it basically deals with the Life and Works of Rizal. However, we also delve into our nation's history, along with the other heroes. I stumbled into this site because I am making a report on the subject regarding Ilustrados and the Clase Media.

    My professor in that certain subject has told us how RICH our culture was before the Spaniards came. It was quite a shock too, really. He said that the early natives and inhabitants of our archipelago had its own writing system, the Alibata (kung tanga ka di mo din to alam kingina mo! ~> to 1st anonymous) and we also have already started trade with the Malay and Chinese people.

    A language is considered developed if it is simple, it is a proof that it has already matured through the years. Complicated languages therefore have yet to evolve. (e.g. the complication of European language is due to it being "young", only 1000 years old)

    Alibata is already a 2,000 year old language. It originated from one of the native languages in India (?) (i was just listening to the prof) and was one of the earliest languages formed. This proves how developed we already were before the colonization period and how we have already come in contact with other civilizations as well.

    In relation to Filipinos being UNpatriotic nowadays, we can trace it to the geographical situation of the country. We were merely separate islands before we became a nation/country. Hence, there is a vast difference in dialects, traditions, cultures, etc. The first nationalistic value was instilled when the middle class, specifically the Ilustrados, emerged. Even though it is quite ironic that they used the term Filipino to unite the people (Filipino initially referred to the Insulares, Creoles, and other mestizos), it was a starting point since it gave a sense of "identity" to the people - not as mere individuals but as members of a nation.

    Patriotism. As to why we do not have that much TODAY from our fellow countrymen, I really cannot answer. The individuality of people, the differences in the POV, and the status in life may contribute to how one would feel for his/her country.

    Not every Filipino is given the chance to enter elementary - malamang wala silang alam tungkol sa bansa natin kung ganoon.
    And there's even a smaller percentage of those in elementary who will be able to enter high school. At hindi naman lahat ng paaralan ay maayos ang pagtuturo - and more so, hindi lahat ng nangyari sa ating kasaysayan ay itinuturo sa high school. I am a living proof for that. I was totally shocked when I reached college. It was only then that I learned the smudges behind the history books, the blurred events of out past. For instance, hindi ko na-imagine na si Aguinaldo pala ang nag-utos na ipa-chop-chop si Bonifacio!? And where are they now? Magkatabi pa ata sila sa ibang national heroes list!

    Unang presidente pa lang natin, corrupt na, opurtunista pa!

    BUT I still have not lost hope for my country. Mahal ko ang Pilipinas. I want my country to gradually open its eyes, to be able to have a change in perspective and be able to struggle, to fight and to finally emerge victorious.

    PILIPINO tayo, matatapang, matatalino. Amerikano, Español at Hapon nga kinaya natin eh. Now is the time for us to stand up for ourselves. Sarili na natin ang kalaban natin.
    (along with some others na walang magawa kundi siraan ang sariling bayan at kapwa. And if ever they're actually not Filipinos, they have no right to judge us. We are all human beings. Discriminating us will not raise you to a higher level than us or make us bow down to you. To actually insult another race, tsk.tsk. I think you're a SUB-human. An underdeveloped homo sapien existing amongst the elite of the species. OR WORSE! you're a lost homo erectus.

    Mabuhay ang PINOY! =)

    tuloy ang laban!

    (for any comments, opinions, or criticisms, you can contact me on my URL)

  24. Your website article needs views from other fields of study or a WORLD VIEW. The MASSIVE CIVIL WARS in Latin America is a result of the OUTDATED MEDIEVAL SUPERPOWER SPAIN.

    Why AGUINALDO HAD ANTONIO LUNA and ANDRES BONIFACIO KILLED is similar to the Civil Wars of Latin America. THE ELITE CLASS VERSUS THE MASSES ( examples: Mexico---Porfirio Diaz versus Madero, Pancho Villa, Zapata. ).

    Another important field of study is the HERITAGE OF PHILOSOPHIES & ETHICS running GOVERNMENT, COMMERCE, & INDUSTRIES.

    Spaniards are outdated. THE MALAY NATIVE PHILOSOPHIES & ETHICS HERITAGE in commerce, Industries, Government are not developed enough to run a nation. (Example: JAPAN-BUDDHIST-CONFUCIAN DETERMINATION & SUFFERING is vital to the RISE OF INDUSTRIES & GIVE JOBS.)

    You remember the incompetence to maintain CDCP, PNR, NAWASA, MMTC, etc. It's a trait of the natives called NINGAS-KUGON. Do you want to run a nation with that?

  25. To Valentin: you should read the over 40 pages of report of Messrs. Sargent and Wilcox, two navy men from Admiral Dewey's squadron, who toured northern Luzon and observed the life of the Filipinos under the new regime of president Emilio Aguinaldo, a few days before war was commenced by the American military in Feb. 4, 1899. The report said in part: "As a tribute to the efficiency of Aguinaldo's government and to the law-abiding character of his subjects, I offer the fact that Mr. Wilcox and I pursued our journey throughout in perfect security, and returned to Manila with only the most pleasant recollections of the quiet and orderly life which we found the natives to be leading under the new regime." The failure to keep CDCP, NAWASA, etc. happened under the watch of the new (or remade)Filipinos.

  26. To Valentin: Let me quote a section of my blog: McKinley's Imperialist Policy in which an American officer described his observation of the machinery of the Aguinaldo government after Santa Ana, a town near Manila was overran on the second day of the war by advancing American troops:
    "When we reached the headquarters at Santa Ana another surprise awaited us, for here was found some of the machinery of Aguinaldo's government. Among the papers scattered about in confusion by the retreating officials were telegrams, letters, and commissions, showing something of their system. One letter was from a township governor asking relief from his duties; a surgeon's certificate was inclosed. It had been forwarded through official channels to Aguinaldo's secretary of state and returned with abundant indorsements approved. With it was an order to the governor of the province to have a new election. Another letter was a complaint made against another local governor for mal-administration. It stated the charges in real legal form, and was duly signed. The numerous papers concerning school teachers' appointments showed that the Filipinos had already perfected arrangements for the education of the youth on a large scale. I might also mention the deeds of property, records of births, deaths, etc., to show that Aguinaldo's organization is at least not a laughable farce. I might mention also meteorological and other scientific instruments and records to show that the Filipinos didn't neglect science during those busy, warlike times. Letters dated February 4 from Malolos showed that they had a good courier system. A book on tactics, engravings of the several uniforms, beautiful topographical maps, copies of the declaration of independence and the revolutionary constitution, military and state seals, and other articles all went to show that labor and intelligence were united in their production. "

  27. Efficiencies are more in Latin American nations, and yet they all still went to civil wars. They're closer to Europe where they get latest education (remember elites Rizal, Luna, etc. studying in Europe).

    Mother Spain herself went to not just one, but two civil wars!

    Here's why.

    World history's three major divisions:
    -Medieval (European event)

    Ancient times had great Empires with great ancient learning (Roman, Middle East, India, & China, etc.). Rome fell hence the Dark Ages, then the Medieval times.

    In the Medieval, a lot of great Roman Ancient learning were lost(example massive water supplies). SPAIN & Portugal came into power during this time.

    Modern Era came led by the Industrial Age among others(advent of Democracy, French Revolution, Age of Enlightenment, etc).

    Spain and colonies were NOT able to keep pace, particularly WIDESPREAD MODERN LEARNING available to the masses.

    The rest of the world(Middle East, India, China) jumped from Ancient to Modern. In the transition, some had great difficulties. China is a classic example. Maraming hirap thru most of the 20th century, but they're coming back.

    As far as running facilities, deep character such as DETERMINATION, DEEP THINKING and SACRIFICE usually come from philosophies. PHILOSOPHIES ARE TIED UP WITH RELIGION, hence convictions.

    It is beyond university learning.

    There is an article – Towards a Philippine Philosophy - by Paul Kenkai Manansala researching Filipino philosophies. Guess what? They are not developed enough.

    Kung malalim ang pinangalingan ng mga Filipinos, the short 48-year American rule with its modern learning will not be enough to change us... because philosophies are about convictions.

  28. To Valentin: It is unreasonable to expect the Filipinos to own a philosophy when they were not even a nation before Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence in June 12, 1898. However, it was clear that a truly Filipino political ideology was starting to develop that was nipped in the bud by force of American arms. This political ideology sprouted from the seed sown by Rizal and the propagandists who urged the Filipinos to improve themselves and be worthy of being assimilated into the body politic of the mother country, Spain. Then came the katipunan which advocated separation. But Bonifacio knew independence meant responsibility so he prescribed self-education and self-improvement. Thus, it was katipunan’s purpose not only to recruit members but also to teach the path to righteousness through Jacinto’s “Liwanag at Dilim” and Bonifacio’s “Kartilya”. These documents contained teachings that essentially catechized the members into the proper understanding of basic human rights, religion, love of country, responsibility to family, and relationship with neighbors. Aguinaldo took advantage of the bond and unity created by the katipunan and brought together the various ethnic groups into one Filipino national organization, the Malolos republic, whose first congress was convened in September 15, 1898. From here on, the basic principles of republicanism – a constitutional government, separation of church and state, the absolute power of the executive versus the supremacy of congress became issues before the new government. Even after the capture of Aguinaldo in March 23, 1901 , the remnants of the army resuscitated the katipunan and used its sacred oaths, solemn rituals and teachings to initiate new recruits. Even as late as 1906 Macario Sakay was still out fighting in the field and reports of men who signed their names in blood was reported in Ilocos Sur. These are proofs that convictions guided actions. Too bad, the Americans intervened.

  29. You keep on referring to Philippine History inside the country only, and no reference to the whole colonies of Spain. Where would Aguinaldo GET his modern learning to give to the masses?

    Please study Latin American History(Mexico, Argentina, etc) and we are the only Spanish colony(along with Puerto Rico and Guam) that did not go through Civil Wars because of American Modern Learning.

    Had America not annexed us, we will be like Mexico or a central American country. No modern learning means no global Pinoy, and it won't be annual 35 billion dollars remittance to the country.

  30. To Valentin: You presupposed that Filipinos would have no access to modern learning without American intervention. I think this is preposterous. The propaganda movement brought knowledge from most of Europe that was mainly responsible for the enlightenment of the masses. Bonifacio learned from the French revolution while Aguinaldo was enamored with the concept of the great North American Republic. Isabelo delos Reyes brought in from Europe the ideas of socialism. The Hongkong junta contributed the Asiatic experience, more so with Mariano Ponce’s Japanese connections. Sixto Lopez spent time in the United States sufficiently long enough to draw ideas from the American system. Galicano Apacible talked about the early use of electricity in the country in presenting to the American public how modernization had come to the Filipinos. Among the first major acts of the Malolos government was the establishment of a university of arts and letters, along with a military academy. An American POW, Albert Sonrichsen, closely observed the Filipinos’ efforts at education and wrote:”In September we were taken up the Abra River to Bangued, in the heart of the Abra Mountains, and here we were allowed the full liberty of the town, well treated and cared for. I was able to teach school here, for which I received a pay almost equal to that of a second lieutenant in the insurgent army. Many of my companions were able to do likewise; all, in fact, that were capable of speaking the Spanish language. Even during the war the Filipinos established schools in every town, and Vigan could boast of an excellent college which followed its daily routine as in times of peace. Upon the arrival of the Americans these schools and colleges were broken up, and the buildings ever since have been confiscated as barracks.” (follow this link) I think the conclusion that without American annexation the Philippines would have no source of modern learning and fall into the Latin American propensity to civil war lacks strong historical basis given the character of the government that Aguinaldo had established. Also, no local armed force could have stood up before the expanding, fully armed 30,000-strong Filipino army that some ambitious regional upstarts might try to muster to wage a civil war.

  31. The first half of the twentieth century saw MILLIONS OF LIVES LOST in most of the world because of the masses do not have modern learning to get income from.

    The result: massive poverty, massive internal wars and of course, COMMUNISM.

    -Russian Revolutions(1905,1917,1918 to 1922)
    -Chinese Revolutions(1911 to 1912, 1913, 1917 to 1922, 1926 to 1928, 1927 to 1949)
    -Korean Wars North versus South (1950 to 1953, etc)
    -Vietnam/Indochina wars (North versus South – 1941 to 1954, 1959 to 1975)
    -Indonesia(Dictator and communistic ideals)
    -Eastern European Nations became communists
    -Latin American nations revolutions (from Mexico to Argentina) Socialistic/Communistic ideals
    -African nations communistic/socialistic ideals.

    Filipinos with no deep heritage, no modern learning and HEAVILY HISPANICIZED CORRUPT GREED... What are your chances of applying all those concepts you've mentioned?

    P.S. Aguinaldo KILLED Bonifacio then how can he apply French Revolution knowledge? He is dead. Don't you think Latin American countries would learn more from the US and Europe since they are closer. Why on earth they went to wars?

  32. Wow. Thank you for this article.

    I have to agree about how history is being taught today and that many Filipinos do not have a sense of patriotism. If you ask a typical pinoy student when the Philippine Revolution broke out, he probably couldnt answer. Even when singing the Lupang Hinirang, many do not respect the national flag. Its tragic that Filipinos have become decadent and that only a few seem to care.

    to Anonymous (march 31,2009), Im also a kid but i dont think this has no meaning. Maybe you could read 'veneration without understanding' by Renato Constantino. That'll help you see the point.

  33. To Valentin: Do you know that the Malolos congress enacted a law to sell government bonds - 40-year, 6%, $20 million Mexican dollars, of which $5 million was floated with $388,650 actually sold. The many heretofore unknown facts that I have learned about the Aguinaldo government is completely changing my outlook. I am convinced that Filipinos can learn from the achievements of that government and take them for inspiration which can give a clearer view of present day realities. You keep on harping that Aguinaldo killed Bonifacio and Luna. These are the same propaganda lines used by the Americans to discredit Aguinaldo and neutralize him as a potential source of future trouble. The truth is both Bonifacio and Luna were misfits in the great drama of the revolution. Bonifacio clung to his ragtag katipunan and refused to accept a more appropriate national organization. He counted on the loyalty of the Magdiwang faction of Noveleta and tried to get Miguel Malvar to his side to mount a counter revolution by setting up his own government. But Aguinaldo sternly warned that such actions against the new government was tantamount to treason and for this reason Bonifacio was arrested and tried. He voluntarily accepted the jurisdiction of the court martial which sentenced him to death by firing squad. On the other hand, Luna condemned the Bonifacio-led revolution but volunteered his services to Aguinaldo after 9,000 Spanish prisoners were taken. When Luna was in the midst of battle against the Americans at Bagbag, Bulacan, in May 1899, he took off with a battalion of troops and marched to Guagua to arrest General Mascardo, who refused to obey his orders. Only General del Pilar and a smaller number of troops were left behind to defend the lines, and the Filipinos lost. Eventually, Luna secretly divided the army by enlisting fellow Ilocanos and Macabebes, the latter being the mortal enemy of the Tagalogs. This action of Luna was taken as a preparation for a coup and for this reason he was assassinated. Bonifacio fought the Spaniards for only 4 months, August to December, 1896, while Aguinaldo waged the struggle for four and a half years, from August 1896 to December 1897, and then again from May, 1898 to March, 1901, the year he was captured. However, the remnants of his army continued the fight until September 23, 1906, the date the die-hard katipunero, Macario Sakay, was treacherously captured and hanged. Mr. Valentin, I am totally impressed by the exploits of the Filipinos of the Aguinaldo era. What you see today are the workings of the new breed of brain-washed Filipinos, and I am very cognizant of that distinction.

  34. I'm on a deadline and super-busy.

    I'll get back to you.

  35. From what I've read, Filipinos lack a great deal. Though I am an ordinary filipino citizen it is with great concern and interest to me that many of us lack something, and that is the obedience, responsibility, and above all the compassion for our beloved country. For the past Centuries our forefathers gave their lives for us to be united and free ourselves against our foreign oppressors and to have a country for ourselves to run in prosperity and development. But now the freedom that they died to accomplished was but a waste. Though we have accomplished our sovereignty, we lack traits to run it, the once united filipinos in the past are now selfishly killing each other for their own ambitions, deceiving their fellow filipinos for their selfish ways. Remember that "Love one Another as you love your self."(Mark 12:31) And also I tell you "It is not only how good we are to the world! But also how good we are for our country!". As I've said we lack the responsibility, obedience and compassion for our country. What's lacking is not within only our Government but also within our selves as filipinos. For even ordinary people do extra ordinary things. And rebellion is not the solution nor is Blaming others not the answer also. What we must do is to reach out to every filipino in the Philippines and also to the whole world. To give a helping "Hand to Hand" to fully develope and prosper as filipinos, so the world will know that in this time patriots still exist in our country. For its not how big you can do for your country but how little you can do for your fellow filipinos.

    Jozhua Rey Dagasuan
    C.D.O., Phil.

  36. To Macapili:

    "Bonifacio clung to his ragtag katipunan and refused to accept a more appropriate national organization. He counted on the loyalty of the Magdiwang faction of Noveleta and tried to get Miguel Malvar to his side to mount a counter revolution by setting up his own government."

    Er, no. Caviteno spin doctors got to you. The most recent findings indicate that Bonifacio in fact headed a republican revolutionary government called Haring Bayang Katagalugan (Sovereign Tagalog Nation), or simply Republika ng Katagaluhan (Tagalog Republic), which was the Katipunan transformed. Far from being a ragtag group as you put it, Bonifacio's Katipunan was the people's government even before Aguinaldo formed his own. Aguinaldo was the subversive or upstart. Hell, even Wikipedia has this already.

    "Bonifacio fought the Spaniards for only 4 months, August to December, 1896"

    What about December 1896 to May 1897?

  37. The transition from the Katipunan:

    "The first attempt to break away from the authority of the Katipunan occured as early as in October 31, 1896, when Emilio Aguinaldo, himself a katipunero, issued a manifesto entitled 'Liberty,Equality and Fraternity' in which he outlined a proposed revolutionary government, republican in form and "similar to that of the U.S.A.", and invited all good men to support it. The second attempt took place toward the end of December, when a Katipunan convention was held in the town of Imus, in the province of Cavite, for the purpose of uniting the two provincial councils of that province and checking thereby the rivalry between them, and of adopting a proposed constitution. Nothing definite, however, was accomplished beyond the adoption of an agreement that another convention invested with power to decide this question should be held at some later time. The third step was taken on March 22, 1897, when a second convention, presumably larger and more representative than the preceding one, was held in Tejeros, San Francisco de Malabon, under the presidency of Andres Bonifacio. It was here that an agreement was reached, in spite of the opposition of certain elements, to create a revolutionary organization that would replace the Katipunan supreme council and take charge of general affairs. ... The transition from the Katipunan to the revolutionary organization was not accomplished without difficulties. Andres Bonifacio believed in the vindicating virtue of the association he had founded, and his mission was one of defending and propagating it and leading it to victory. Emilio Jacinto had much the same opinion; for as late as February 1898, he was still laboring to further the interest of the society in Laguna There were many who, in deference to Bonifacio, opposed a change; but they were in the minority, and in the end yielded to the wishes of the stronger party. The new organization was acclaimed apparently by all. Then Bonifacio, who had agreed with the rest to abide by the decision of the majority and who presided over the convention at Tejeros, refused to recognize the validity of the elections held under its auspices and the authority of the government set up. He was arrested by order of Aguinaldo, and tried before a court martial presided over by General Mariano Noriel. Convicted of sedition, the court martial sentenced him to be shot, but Aguinaldo commuted the death sentence to imprisonment for life. This act of grace, however, proved ineffective, for he was finally executed at Mount Buntis on May 10, just as Primo de Rivera's victorious forces were making themselves masters of Cavite province." (Fernandez, 29-30)

  38. I am curious that you Filipinos celebrate your 'independance day' from Spain as 1898. True Independence day for the Philippines should be July 4th 1946.
    The Philippines never gained independance from Spain, it was 'handed over' to the USA at the Treaty of Paris. That is not independance. In fact the reason the current date was agreed was only to appease ultra nationalist politicians in the Philippines at the time it was agreed. And yes the USA did consider offering the Philippines autonomous territory status, such as Guam and Puerto Rico and of course the first annonymous blogger is correct in saying the filipinos turned it down. Ultra nationalist politics at play again no doubt. The rest is history. One also detect a hint racism in some blogs against the Spanish? For those Filipino armchair critics and psudo intellectuals who have never set foot outside the Philippines and who pretend to know it all, Spain today is part of the EU and is a vastly different developed multi cultural democratic society than it was 100 to 500 years ago. Some Filipinos should come into the 21st century.

  39. I would like to ask peoples who read this, Are you one of those Nationalist and patriotic narrow-minded people?

    Is it your pride that holds you back succumbing on the cave called Nationalistic pride?

    Try to open up your minds, and answer this question: "Are you a filipino before you are a Human? Or are you a Human first before a Filipino?"

    Honestly, I won't care much what race, what nation, what color, what religion, or what status you are. All for I care is that you are a Human, a superior Intellectual Being, who can use his brains and intellect over his instincts, for me to respect that person. I'd rather like to see a human who's using his intellects, trying to prove that he's a human, rather than seeing a bogus patriotic dummy trying to cause ruckus for such idiotic reasons such as nationality.

    Nationalism, patriotism, and racism. Those are the causes of Discrimination, which in turn invites war.

    I'd like to leave a little note before ending my comment.

    "We are Humans, not Americans, British, Filipinos. You are like me, creatures with higher intelligence, no matter what nation you came from. Let's stop trying to create more fuss with this stupid idiocy."

    No matter what color you are, what race you came from, what your nationality is, you are still a human having the capacity to be superior than your counterparts. We have brains, and if we use them, then we shall be called as a human. That's all that matters, and not this stupid pre-historic ideal.

    1. dr, I must first commend you for the higher thinking required to consider the concept of the unification of human ideals and values. Truly, all humans naturally espouse the same basic virtues of respect for life and the pursuit of intellect and happiness. Although I believe in the shared virtues of humanity, however, I must argue that the homogenization of the human race is something I would hate to see in my lifetime or any of my children's or grandchildren's lifetime, for nationalism, or what you call, "this stupid pre-historic ideal," is a central aspect of culture and arts. Let me explain.

      To ensure that we are on equal understanding, I want to address some of your points. Firstly, nobody in the comments section ever referred to the Filipino as a master or superior race. Therefore, there was never any intent in the discussion to usurp the importance of being human by replacing it with a higher ideal of the Filipino. In fact, the higher ideal of the Filipino was a product of the intellectual discourse of that time. Numerous times, the cosmopolitan and learned men of the time were contributing the most modern ideas into the administration of government. This is very different from what is happening here today. Is it not the more human thing to do to aim for something better and to aspire for what he have lost over the years?

      Second, most of the culture and art we enjoy today are not a result of the direct pursuit of the higher ideals of humanity. In fact, the greatest accomplishments in human history were products of competition, nationalism or patriotism, some of which you decry, coupled with the higher pursuit for humanity. For what art can you create with no pride as a Filipino, Austrian, German, Egyptian, or any other race? What distinctness can be created then? What uniqueness in human experience can you offer with no ties to your cultural heritage? If we all cease to see each other as unique individuals borne out of unique contexts and rather as unique individuals all borne out of the same homogenous mold, what a loss for humanity!

      In closing, I would hate to see us all cast aside our national identity, as you have proposed, because of the loss it would mean for the human race. There is nothing inherently wrong with nationalism or patriotism. But there is something wrong in racism. Do not mix up higher ideals with wrong ones and instead, pursue higher ideals of humanity for the good of your nation and be proud of its contribution to the culture and richness of humanity. No nation is above humanity but humanity inherently contributes to nationhood. There is no separating the two.

  40. How can we Filipinos be expected to have love for our nation when even the designation of our national hero is a product of that Heredity Injuring Virus transmitted to us by the Americans to cut us from our link with our elder warriors who lead the Filipino resistance against the American invasion of 1899?

  41. I will state this in Tagalog so it may be easily understood by our fellow Filipino. Ang hunting falcon ay sinasanay sa pagkakatali kapag nakatulog na siya saka siya tatangalan ng tali at sa ganung pagkakataon hindi nya alam kung naktali pa siya o nakakalag na. Kaya kapag siya ay pinakawalan babalik at babalik siya dahil yun ang nakasanayan nya. I would like to quote a song of Asin "kalagan ang tali sa paa, imulat na ang iyong mga mata".

  42. Macapili, with your permission, I would like to post this in my blog.

    Maraming salamat!

  43. To Showroom manager: By with all means, with pleasure.

  44. Of course the Filipinos aren't patriotic: America sucked the lifeblood out of it.

    Its the game of great powers and has been the case pretty much since the beginning of time. Caesar conquered Gaul (modern day France), wiped out its people and culture and made it a province of Rome. To this very day, French is a Romance language not a Celtic one (the Celtics were the original inhabitants).

    Look what Cortes did to Mexico. Mexicans speak Spanish not Nahautl, the language of the Aztecs. Etc., etc. etc.

    If there is anything that I would have taught in the Philippines from elementary on up, it would be Baybayin, its ancient script. I taught myself it by visiting a website (its very easy to learn) and I downloaded the fonts and I can type it on my computer on a Word processing program. Cool stuff!

    Imagine seeing the script atop government named agencies that are in Tagalog throughout the country. This visual representation of someone pre colonial may animate Filipinos. And, perhaps as a result, a new consciousness can emerge. If I were a lawmaker, I'd introduce such a law.

    fonts you can download

  45. Dear Macapili,

    My name is Jasmine Ferrer, a research assistant for the study, "Filipino blogging and political participation," an independent research funded by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Canada through its Strengthening ICT Research Capacity in Asia (SIRCA) grant program. A component of this study aims to: (1) look into the motivation of Filipinos for reading political blogs; (2) determine if and how Filipino political blog readers participate in politics, offline or online; and (3) examine whether reading political blogs have affected the nature and level of their political participation.

    We'd like to request your participation as one of the survey respondents for this study. If you're interested to participate, please provide us your email address so we can send you the survey form in Word file. Feel free to send questions/clarifications to the principal researcher, Ms. Mary Grace P. Mirandilla at or at To learn more about her work, visit Info about the SIRCA grant program can be found at

    We look forward to hearing from you soon.

    Thank you very much.


    Jasmine Ferrer

  46. Ms. Ferrer,

    My email ad is:


  47. hanggang ngayon tuluy-tuloy pa rin ang amerika sa kanilang paghasik at paglason sa utak ng mga pilipino. kahit ako nuong nag-uumpisa pa akong magkaisip, ang tingin ko sa amerika ay isang tagapagligtas dahil yon ang pinapakita ng mga aklat at mga babasahin. Clearly, the US successfully poisoned the minds of the Filipino people. But, i am certain inspite of that there is still in the inner chamber of the heart of the Filipinos, the patriotism and nationalism that is inherent upon us. This patriotism and nationalism were just suppressed by the mere necessity of existence, na kailangan nating lunukin ang pride natin para tayo mabuhay. Eto ang nakakarimarim na status natin which i know the US still ha part of it, still up to now using the scheme the likes they used in countering the guerilla warfare but in other form by using the same filipinos na sugapa sa kapangyarihan at nagpapagamit sa nais ng Amerika. I just wonder why, US is so eager of controlling us...

  48. Can I post Your Article in my facebook account?

  49. To Macario A. Capili,

    I would like to request your permission to post your posts in my blogsite and facebook.

    José Miguel García

  50. To: Jose Miguel Garcia,
    Yes, you may do as you please with my postings. I visited your site and I find it intellectually challenging and very impressive. Thanks for your interest.

  51. I have always thought that one of the greatest weapons of mighty America is a weapon that is not visible. And after I read the articles in this website, I have confirmed my suspicion. Some of the great weapons of 'Imperial' America is DECEPTION, MANIPULATION OF FACTS, BLACK PROPAGANDA, AND CONCEALMENT OF TRUTH. And i believe that this its first line of defense to protect its National Security. However, if this weapon fails, migthy America becomes a bully, and shows off its military might. Its a chance to showcase its intelligent weapons to conceal its dumb soldiers.

  52. More than four centuries ago, we were under the colonization of Spaniards. We have no idea at all if we did not study history books. Our people did not like the way invaders or foreign soldiers were treating us. Until the last century came and our list of heroes were our last hope because they had guts and fearlessly fighting for the freedom of our country. And Dr. Jose Rizal became the big sacrifice. Nowadays, our OFWs are called the new heroes. There will be no sacrifice needed but a wise leader.

  53. The Jews are the most persecuted people on earth, driven out from their own country, stripped off of their rights and dignity, ostracized in foreign lands and almost completely exterminated by the Holocaust. But they endured and was restored as a nation in 1948 after 1,800 years of struggle and suffering.
    Today, they are one free and independent nation. Whether they are hated or respected, they never blamed history but 'overcame' it.
    There is wisdom here to be learned. Spain and the US had colonized our country and abused our freedom in many ways.
    Yet it is never right to completely blame other races for what the Filipinos have become today. Let's stop the blame game.
    The colonization of our land brought the good and the ugly side of Spain and the US. We must pick up whatever is good and condemn whatever is evil. It is our moral obligation to learn from our mistake and shape our own destiny as a people. It is never too late.
    This article gives light. It gives perspective to the Filipino identity. Now I understand the Filipino better. I am a Filipino and even proud to be one!
    Kudos to you, Mr Capili. I give your work a double thumbs-up!

  54. patriotism and nationalism is never wrong, what is wrong if nationalism and patriotism were use in the wrong path of life just like north Korea. they where patriotic and nationalistic of their country as what they where told but its never a good idea for they imposed fear and death to those who will opposed them.

    the Filipinos should be patriotic and nationalistic in ways that we love and serve our own it is never to late to do such things.

    today foreigners have a very strong influenced on the Philippines but we still holding on to our own, "NO ONE WOULD HELP US IN TIMES OF NEED EXCEPT OUR OWN" there is still hope for the Philippines, the Filipino people and all those country who are poor and deprive of things.

  55. A few other factors need to be mentioned:
    1) Filipinos as a race/culture do not hold grudges that long but remember favors forever.
    2) There was WWII in which Kanos and Pinoys became very close friends and allies and bygones became bygones forever. They fought side by side and shed blood together.
    3) Americans allowed millions of Pinoys to immigrate, get US citizenship and serve in US armed forces. They helped millions to discover opportunities that they never had. The 'sister Asian countries" such as Japan, Korea and China did not give the RP anything like this.
    4) Americans traded, invested, employed, helped and educated more than they killed and abused. The average Filipino would always benefit more from being a friend/employee/business partner of a Kano than anyone else.
    5) American popular culture is very attractive and entertaining to the masses. And the Philippines does not have a national culture that is just as attractive. This is why you always see Filipinos with Us flags, playing US music, but you do not see an Indonesian with Dutch flags singing Dutch songs or a HK person running around with a UK flag T shirt and singing Beatles all day. They already have a strong local culture to fall back on.
    Americans did many bad things in RP but they also did a lot of good and the locals liked it.

  56. all the people in the Philippine American war are long dead; the US now is not the same US that was before. It is run by a Black man, most white Americans that you meet are descendants of immigrants that came after that war. The US has pumped billions of not trillions of aid to the Philippines, employed and changed lives of millions of Filipinos and helped you more that any other country ever did. So, maybe it is time to put the grudge to rest?

  57. @previous anonymous: I take exception to your statement that Philippines receive billions, if not trillions of U.S. aid. That may be true to Pakistan, Israel or other countries but certainly not Philippines. If this is so, why would U.S. require Philippines to pay Php 405 million for a second hand frigate "Hamilton" class? And look at the state of the military hardware provided by US to Phils, most of the ships and planes have been scrapped.

  58. 94 million in aid in 2009, over 100 million in aid in 2010

    How much is that over 10, 20 years?


  59. The Filipino is not patriotic because he finds little in the current system to be PROUD of. His government rots due to corruption in every place in society, his elected leaders are kleptocratic, his cities fester with poverty, pollution and horrendous traffic, few but the rich can afford healthcare in the most serious cases, there are no inventions and innovations originating from this society that he can truly claim as his own, he has to send his wife, husband, sons and daughters to foreign countries to survive and for the country to receive remittances in order to stay afloat. Patriotism comes from the ability to be independent, to run an efficient and clean government so that people can rise to middle-class status. When there is widespread poverty, injustice, and corruption, there can be no patriotism. How can people think of their country when their immediate family is starving, deprived of their rights by a corrupt government, ruled buy a few rich and powerful, the same political dynasties and cronies plundering the system in turns?

  60. I just happened across this page but my first impression is --great!

    The globalists are "brainwashing" students in our current education system just as they did in 1901 Philippines.

    Also, did you know Ron Paul is the only candidate to publicly support H.R.210 – Filipino Veterans Fairness Act of 2011.

  61. Tomas de TorquemadaMay 29, 2012 at 9:32 PM

    The underlying problem was Spain herself. After 1812 she had changed her constitution to a more liberal one. within the same century right wing liberals were in control and centralized the colonial governments which was long before governed by fueros which are autonomous constitutions that were used within the regions of Spain and her colonies. The abolition of the Inquisition was also a result of the 1812 constitution which also consequently resulted into the flourishing of masonic lodges brought from liberal Europe. On these lodges were initiated those so called "national heroes" who were no other than a bunch of heretics and blasphemers.

  62. Interesting discussion, but a bit of perspective, please. Patriotism is an offshoot of nationalism, a worldwide phenomenon in the 19th century. "Nations" as old as Italy were not even in existence as such, and we were riding on the same wave. Some countries also happened to be more threatened by war than others (against Napoleon, for one - the "patriotic duty" concept). In other places, the idea led to chauvinism and racism (in a "national" idea based on ethnicity, I suppose it has to be a stage). Hence, I can't help questioning everything I was taught in high school and college, including patriotism.

    I do have to agree that corruption is a pending assignment. Have you seen the Transparency International Corruption Map?

    Rizal continues to be relevant: "There are no tyrants where there are no slaves".

  63. This article's presentation was also presented (in similar point of view: america's white superiority-how the press presented Filipinos-like negritos who wore G-strings and spears- in other words, America's first Vietnam. And there is a short documentary on that). What this article missed, is that in provinces like Negros Occ, we didn't fight the Americans, on the contrary, we asked USA to make us another country as long as the landowners can keep their land. Not all provinces were for Aguinaldo. As a matter of fact, in Negros, after the Spaniards left on Christmas day 1899, Aguinaldo telegrammed Lacson and Araneta and asked them to join him. However Lacson-Araneta, refused. They didnt' want to be under teh command of Aguinaldo. That is one reason of our disconnect. We only get the side of the "patriotic" Filipinos who fought the Americans, but we don't get the side of the Pro American Filipinos.

  64. Ang husay ng gawa ng Blogger na ito makatotohanan. Matagal na akong naninilbihan sa kompanyang Americano. Ito ang nag dulot ng pag usad ng aking kabuhayan sapul ng aking mga kapamilya. Ang kompanyang ito ay nag papahintulot ng pag kilala sa sariling kakayahan. Sa dami kong na katrabaho na Pilipino at mga iba't ibang uri ng lahi ang Pilipino laging napupuri sa taglay nitong galling na maka pareha at umangat sa larangan ng kanyang ginagalawan. Ako'y lahi ng iba't ibang tribu, ang Tatay Bikolano ang Nanay ay Waray. Sila man ay galing sa halu-halung lahi, may dugong tagalog at Bisaya sa Tatay, ang Nanay naman ay intsik at Waray. Samakatuwid wala akong maitataggi na Pilipino nga ako. Anu ba talaga ang Pilipino?
    Minsan sa aking hanap buhay may Amerikanong minura ang Pilipino sa wikang ingles "Fucking lazy son of a bitch.. you mother fucker" tumawa lang ito ni walang halaga sa kanya iyon. Maka launan may kapwa Pilipino ang nag mura nakakataas ito ng katungkulan, "Ay sa putang ina mo tamad ka wala ka pang alam".. away ang kinahinantnan ng dalawa. Sabi nga ng manunulat na si Jane Austen (English hindi Kano)..."it isn't what we say or think that defines us, but what we do". Ika nga ng Batangueno--"Ikaw ga'y anu?"...Daghan Salamat, Mabalos!

  65. By Pilipino I presume the writer means the Tagalogs.... as for the US army being the most powerful during that time I don't think so. During that time the Europeans, specially the Germans and the British were much more powerful militarily. The feeling of regionalism was paramount during those times and to some extent it still does in the present. Pilipinos tend to identify more with their ethnic group rather than with being Pilipino. The American occupation exacerbated the already loose cohesiveness between the different groups. The Americans applied divide and rule tactics (also used by the Spaniards) when they conquered the islands... as for making the blanket statement that Pilipinos are unpatriotic, it would depend on how define being a Pilipino is....

  66. Why is it that the Philippine history that is taught in schools is mosly all about the tagalog and luzon? Not much of visayas and mindanao... as far as i know we too in Cebu and Central Visayas had fought hard against colonialism too, and we also have our very strong and reputable heroes.. even until today, we continue to struggle from domination, this time not from some white skinned people, but the imperial manila, that belittle our existence as FILIPINOS. And how they systemized us to an economic and governing disparity. By creating this centralized form of government, where manila imperialistically rule.

  67. Why is it that the Philippine history that is taught in schools is mosly all about the tagalog and luzon? Not much of visayas and mindanao... as far as i know we too in Cebu and Central Visayas had fought hard against colonialism too, and we also have our very strong and reputable heroes.. even until today, we continue to struggle from domination, this time not from some white skinned people, but the imperial manila, that belittle our existence as FILIPINOS. And how they systemized us to an economic and governing disparity. By creating this centralized form of government, where manila imperialistically rule.

  68. This comment has been removed by the author.

  69. This comment has been removed by the author.

  70. We need to stop or remove the name mckinley in our streets or locality . He is a tyrant and imperialist that does not deserved any special mention in our country


    Pages 157 and 158 'The Capture of Aguinaldo'
    Emilio Aguinaldo's surrender to the American's was a cowardly act. There was no doubt that he coveted the presidency. He surrendered for fear that others more competent than he would occupy the post of president of tne Republic.
    Had he fought with his captors, regardless of whether he succumbed so that he might be considered a hero, at least to vindicate his crimes, by this time we would be admiring a monument to the second hero of the Philippines, unlike what he did delivering himself as prisoner and afterward taking an oath of allegiance to the American flag.
    The crimes he committed against Andres Bonifacio and Antonio Luna, and his attempt to assassinate the undersigned (i.e. Julio Nakpil) should be condemned by history, and Universal Freemasonry ought to expel him and declare him a spurious son. The coward finds many dangers where none exist!
    March, 1897 - A persistent rumor circulated that Andres Bonifacio was paid by the friars to promote the rebellion against Spain and also it was said he was sanguinary. Is this the work of his enemies to discredit him?
    Emilio Aguinaldo censured by those from Cavite. On account of the abuses and immoralities of his soldiers, such as robberies and rape of married women as well as single, many complaints were brought to E. Aguinaldo; but, instead of punishing the culprits, he would reply invariably: "Please be patient because we do not pay our soldiers."
    Among the despicable ones was a Major surnamed Ritual who boastfully recounted with the greatest pleasure and effrontery the following: He and two of his soldiers went up a house in one of the towns of Cavite finding there two sisters, single and pretty. As they would not accede to their satyric de sires, he kicked one of them several times on the hips, and when the other protested and shouted for help, then Ritual himself hit them with the butt of his gun until they fell on the floor; and once the two sisters had fainted, they succeeded to satisfy their vile appetite.
    Many of these barbarous acts occurred in Cavite principally, inasmuch as they were left unpunished. Under Andres Bonifacio and Antonio Luna these cases were severely punished. Ritual related this in the presence of Atilano Sta. Ana, two Spanish soldiers who were deserters, and the undersigned in the town of Cainta. I was very indignant. Thanks that I was able to refrain from shooting him with my revolver for fear of committing murder.
    Finally, Emilio Aguinaldo ought to give an example of national solidarity. Considering those murders committed by him on the precious lives of Bonifacio and Luna and others their indignant relatives as well as their friends and the people in general did not rise against him for the sake of national unity.
    His ambition to occupy the presidency is fully demonstrated when General L. Wood promised it to him (deceiving him for his own purposes) when we would' be granted our independence'. It is a common belief that this post would be occupied by one who held it during the Revolution, and for this reason he persists in winning sympathy, using as an instrument the Veterans of the Revolution, endeavoring to establish throughout the Archipelago Commandancias Departamentales (Departmental Commands.)
    Another reproach against Aguinaldo was his acceptance of P12,OOO as annual life-pension so that he is already paid for his services during the Revolution.
    He himself destroyed his work due to his excessive ambition for grandeur and riches, and the like. Had he renounced this great amount in favor of the invalid veterans of the Revolution. he would have performed an act of patriotism and charity.
    I swear before God and before History that everything related in these notes is the truth and I entreat the historian not to publish this until after my death.
    (Signed) JULIO NAKPIL - Year 1925

  72. Here's a good answer to the allegation that Aguinaldo is a traitor:

  73. I'm curious about the bibliography. Can the author provide one? Thanks!

  74. The problem is:
    Filipino is NOT a Race "lahi" NOR an Ethnicity.
    The Problem is that, the Imperialist-Tagalogists' definition of being patriotic is to become Tagalized.

  75. Mark Payumo, the bibliography page is hidden but can be displayed on screen by the user by clicking on the hyperlinked reference on the text of any blog. While the bibliography page is displayed the book if digital copy is available can be accessed directly online by from the bibliography page by clicking on the hyperlink.


    ""Ito, ng matanto nina General Mariano Noriel, General Pio del Pilar, na mga Kagawad ng Consejo de Guerra ay dali daling tinawagan ang aking pansing at sinabing, ‘Kung ibig po ninyon magpatuloy ang kapanatagan ng ating Pamahalaan sa Paghihimagsik, at kung ibig ninyong mabuhay po tayo, ay inyo pong bawiin ang iginawad na indulto sa magkapatid na iyan.’ Dahil ditoy aking binawi at iniatas ko kay General Noriel na ipatupad ang kahatulan ng Consejo de Guerra, na barilin ang magkapatid, alang-alan sa kapakanan ng Bayan.”

    "Emilio Aguinaldo
    "Kawit, Kabite, 22, Marso, 1948"

    English translation:
    Here, when General Mariano Noriel and General Pio del Pilar, members of the Council of War learned (the commutation of the sentence - translator) they immediately called my attention and said: "If you want to have peace in our revolutionary government, and if you want us to continue to live, you have to recall the commutation of the sentence of the Bonifacio brothers." Because of this I recalled it and instructed General Noriel to implement the what the Council of War has decided, to shoot the brothers, in the interest of the country."

  77. Here's a post by Tommy V Matic in fb page "Philippine Camelot: Asia's first republic..." which describes how Bonifacio reacted during the Tejeros convention and the reason for his downfall:

    Tommy Matic IV
    Top Contributor · June 7


    Everyone's heard of the alleged plot to kill General Luna and many Filipinos seem to believe it even if there is ZERO actual evidence of President Aguinaldo's involvement and only circumstantial evidence to the contrary.

    However this was not, it seems, the only plot to kill a Filipino general. There might have been another plot enacted by two top Filipino leaders to betray the greatest general of the Revolution.

    By mid-1897 the rivalry between the two Caviteno councils of Magdalo and Magdiwang had become bitter and hostile. Both groups looked to an election to be held at Tejeros to resolve the issues even as both groups were desperately holding out against a massive pincer offensive that the ruthless Spanish governor general, Camilo de Polavieja, and his top general Jose Lachambre, were leading.

    At Tejeros, the Supremo of the Katipunan, Andres Bonifacio, was made president of the convention. In this he was being honored by BOTH Magdalo and Magdiwang despite the months of building animosity that he had helped stoke. Bonifacio made everyone swear to respect the election results. He also had the power to investigate any anomalies and cheating. In the end, however, he did neither.

    Bonifacio lost to Emilio Aguinaldo for the presidency. Severino de las Alas then asked that Bonifacio be made Vice President because Bonifacio had garnered the second highest number of presidential votes. The suggestion was met with dead silence. Bonifacio eventually won Director of the Interior but this was challenged, infamously, by Daniel Tirona. And this is where everything went downhill for Bonifacio.

    He violated his own oath to respect the results by declaring the results null and void because, like a spoiled child he didn't get what he wanted and he threw a violent fit in front of all the attendees by threatening Daniel Tirona with death. In this he lost the respect of both Magdalo and Magdiwang - the Magdiwang particularly because the Magdiwang ACTUALLY WON the Tejeros Convention, taking 7 of the 9 electoral seats INCLUDING BONIFACIO'S Director of the Interior. (see continuation in next post)

  78. Continued from previous post - Tommy V Matic:

    Feeling angered, entitled and betrayed, Bonifacio betrayed Filipino heroes at Pasong Santol. Angered at his electoral defeat Bonifacio conspired with newly elected Captain General Ricarte to prevent badly needed Spanish reinforcements from reaching the key Filipino defenses at the Perez-Dasmarinas line at Pasong Santol. This was defended by none other than his rival, Emilio Aguinaldo. When Aguinaldo heard of his election victory he REFUSED to leave the field because he knew that the Spanish assault was imminent. He only left to take his oath of office after his elder brother Crispulo offered to hold the defenses, promising that "if they reach [Emilio Aguinaldo] it will be over my dead body".
    Because Bonifacio and Ricarte ACTIVELY PREVENTED Filipino reinforcements from reaching the field, the Spanish overwhelmed the Filipinos (who had successfully held the defenses which had been built by General Edilberto Evangelista before his death) and Crispulo was killed.
    This was a WORSE BETRAYAL THAN MAMASAMPANO AND THE SAF44 but because Bonifacio was responsible it is IGNORED in Philippine history.

    More than this though, Bonifacio may have been targeting not the Filipino soldiers whose lives he callously ignored, but Emilio Aguinaldo himself. Bonifacio had been at the election, Emilio had not. Bonifacio had lost at the election and he knew that Emilio was at the battle front of Pasong Santol. Preventing the critical reinforcements from reaching the field might have been Bonifacio's way of ASSASSINATING the newly elected Emilio Aguinaldo before his rival could even take office. Unfortunately for Bonifacio, Crispulo, Emilio's Kuya, "Took the bullet" for his kapatid.

    And the rest, as they say, is history.

  79. I do not agree that Filipinos are not a patriotic people.

    We may have lost the war against the US, and we may have adopted the English language as one of our official languages, but love for country is there.

    We refused to pay taxes unless we have representation in the US Congress. America had to grant this, and although our representatives did not have the right to vote, they can participate in the debates and introduce legislation. These great men gained our independence by fighting in the halls of the US Congress.

  80. As regards the Aguinaldo-Bonifacio issue, here's an enlightening comment by Tommy Matic IV, regular poster in fb/Philippine-American War group:

    "Remember also that 1) the Supremo lost all his battles with the Spaniards in Manila/Morong. Lives were lost and that tends to make people angry. His losing hundreds of men to very minimal opposition made him look like an agent provocateur (an agent of the Spaniards meant to lure Filipino patriots into the open)

    "He divided rather than unified the Magdalo and Magdiwang councils which led to more defeats.

    "The weakened and divided resistance was pushed back and lost ground to Lachambre, and the previously victorious Cavitenos were looking for someone to blame.

    "... and given his track record Bonifacio was the obvious choice.

    "The stupid ignorant thing about Filipinos today is they don't consider these facts. They never see how Bonifacio was seen through the eyes of his contemporaries and how Bonifacio's selfish, entitled attitude came to be seen as treachery."

  81. Aguinaldo is the greatest Filipino of all time. He bequeathed the Filipino people with their national flag, their national anthem, their independence day, their first republic, the first in all of Asia. He organized the first Filipino republican army and navy, defeated the Spaniards and held 9,000 of them prisoners. He gave the Filipinos their first taste of freedom and independence. He inspired the best, the bravest and the most learned Filipinos to rally around him so that a truly Filipino government can be established and worked for the benefit of the Filipino people (all other governments established in the Philippines were done by foreigners - Spaniards, Americans and Japanese). He led the resistance and defense of this Filipino republic and government to the very end against American aggression that needed 125,000 troops and $400 million and more than three years to put down. His feat has raised the dignity of the Filipino and commanded the respect of other nations then struggling under similar foreign domination and oppression incuding the deference by the colonialists themselves. No Filipino can ever come close, not even Rizal. Any Filipino who does not know Aguinaldo's accomplishments or even deny them is an ingrate or ignorant of this sacred national heritage. And despite all the calumnies and false accusations hurled against his person he will remain the greatest and his legacy shall be enduring because, as General Douglas McArthur said, his monument is the Republic of the Philippines.

  82. Aguinaldo is the greatest Filipino of all time. He bequeathed the Filipino people with their national flag, their national anthem, their independence day, their first republic, the first in all of Asia. He organized the first Filipino republican army and navy, defeated the Spaniards and held 9,000 of them prisoners. He gave the Filipinos their first taste of freedom and independence. He inspired the best, the bravest and the most learned Filipinos to rally around him so that a truly Filipino government can be established and worked for the benefit of the Filipino people (all other governments established in the Philippines were done by foreigners - Spaniards, Americans and Japanese). He led the resistance and defense of this Filipino republic and government to the very end against American aggression that needed 125,000 troops and $400 million and more than three years to put down. His feat has raised the dignity of the Filipino and commanded the respect of other nations then struggling under similar foreign domination and oppression incuding the deference by the colonialists themselves. No Filipino can ever come close, not even Rizal. Any Filipino who does not know Aguinaldo's accomplishments or even deny them is an ingrate or ignorant of this sacred national heritage. And despite all the calumnies and false accusations hurled against his person he will remain the greatest and his legacy shall be enduring because, as General Douglas McArthur said, his monument is the Republic of the Philippines.